F. Sherwood Rowland, Ph.D
Donald Bren Research Professor of Chemistry and
Earth System Science

[c.v. in pdf]

Department of Chemistry
University of California, Irvine
571 Rowland Hall
University of California, Irvine
Irvine, CA 92697-2025
ph: 949 824 6016
fax: 949 824 2905

F. Sherwood Rowland,

Donald Bren Research Professor of Chemistry
and Earth System Science  [cv.pdf]




1983 Tyler World Prize in Environment and Energy
1987 Charles Dana Award for Pioneering Achievements in Health
1989 Japan Prize in Environmental Science and Technology
1993 Peter Debye Award in Physical Chemistry from the American Chemical Society
1994 Roger Revelle Medal of the American Geophysical Union
1995 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry (see separate section below)





Dr. Sherwood Rowland’s research group -- run jointly with Professor Donald Blake -- continues to study the composition of the earth’s atmosphere in remote locations throughout the Pacific region from Alaska to the South Pole; highly polluted cities throughout the world; and areas with special conditions, such as burning forests and/or agricultural wastes, or the marine boundary layer in oceanic locations with high biological emissions.  Whole air samples are collected on land, ships, and aircraft and are returned to his laboratory for analysis.  He actively promotes world-wide research and activities to preserve the chemical balance of the atmosphere.   The same instrumentation is also applied to analyses of human breath, a non-invasive technique for studying various diseases.

In the May of 2002, Professor Rowland received a question from Gary Comer, a wealthy Chicagoan of his acquaintance, “If I want to spend one million dollars on abrupt climate change, what should I do?”  Rowland’s response was “establish ten postdoctoral fellowship positions, each for two years at $50,000 each, and distribute them among ten scientific mentors I can name for you.”  Mr. Comer’s response was to increase the amount to $1,500,000 for three years, and suggested two postdoctorals per mentor.  Comer then quickly approached another scientist – Professor Wally Broecker of Columbia University – about this idea, and commissioned him to allocate another $1,500,000 for ten more postdoctorals – and then, a month later, doubled the total allocation again.  The first U.C.I. Postdoctoral under this Comer Foundation program started work less than 5 months after the initial question from Mr. Comer.  In the end, this program was extended to five years and supported about 60 postdoctoral fellows, working in about 20 different institutions.  As a result, the program gave a substantial international boost to the global study of climate change. 

Mr. Comer died about a year ago, and these fellowships will receive no additional funding from the Comer Foundation. Four mentorships were assigned to U.C.I., (i.e. eight postdoctoral slots) including two in chemistry (Professor Rowland and Professor Don Blake) and two in Earth System Science (divided one postdoctoral apiece to Professors Sue Trumbore, Michael Goulden, Eric Saltzman, and Michael Prather).  Professor Rowland participated in a final Comer Foundation Symposium in Palisades, New York in May.  Mr. Comer’s climate change contribution received substantial national coverage, both in the New York Times and in Science, the leading U.S. scientific journal.

Professor F. Sherwood Rowland in the laboratory, Rowland Hall, UCI.

During the past academic year, Professor Rowland was made chairman for a three year term of the Board of Atmospheric Science on Climate (BASC) of the National Research Council (NRC) of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and participated in meetings in Washington, D.C., of BASC and of one of its subsidiary groups, the Climate Research Committee of the NRC.  During the June/July overlap week of 2006, he spoke at the Lindau (Germany) symposium for Nobel Prize winners in Chemistry.  These are attended by 500 selected graduate students from 30 countries with about half from Western Europe.  In September, Professor Rowland gave a plenary lecture at the annual Science and Technology Symposium in Kyoto, Japan.  In October, he was a Distinguished Lecturer for a week at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.  In August he spoke at the Telluride (Colorado) Conference on Atmospheric Chemistry sponsored by NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration).  In addition, he gave special lectures at the University of California, Merced, Ohio Wesleyan University, and to an International forum sponsored by the United Nations-Brazil, and held in New York City.

Professor Rowland and Professor Donald Blake are co-directors of the Rowland-Blake research group.  During the past year, their high-precision, non-invasive analysis of exhaled human breath has moved forward with studies involving several specific diseases, including cystic fibrosis, diabetes, and pneumonia. 



Tai-Yih Chen, Donald R. Blake, Jimena P. Lopez and F. Sherwood Rowland
Estimation of Global Vehicular Methyl Bromide Emissions: Extrapolation from a Case Study in Santiago, Chile

Geophysical Research Letters, 1999, 26 , 283-286,

Mohan L. Gupta, Ralph J. Cicerone, Donald R. Blake, F. Sherwood Rowland and Ivar S. A. Isaksen,
Global Atmospheric Distributions and Source Strengths of Light Hydrocarbons and Tetrachloroethylene
J. Geophysical Research, 1998, 103, 28,219-28,235,

Jonah J. Colman, Donald R. Blake and F. Sherwood Rowland
The Atmospheric Residence Time of Methyl Bromide Estimated from the Junge Spatial Variability Relationship
Science, 1998, 281, 392-396,

N. J. Blake, D. R. Blake, B. C. Sive, T.-Y. Chen, F. S. Rowland, J. E. Collins, G. W. Sachse and B. E. Anderson
Biomass Burning Emissions and Vertical Distribution of Atmospheric Methyl Halides and other Reduced Carbon Gases in the South Atlantic Region
J. Geophys. Res. 1996, 101, 24,151-24,164,

Donald R. Blake, Tai-Yih Chen, Tyrrel W. Smith Jr., Charles J.-L. Wang, Oliver W., Wingenter, Nicola J. Blake, F. S. Rowland, and Edward W. Mayer
Three-dimensional Distribution of Nonmethane Hydrocarbons and Halocarbons over the Northwestern Pacific During the 1991 Pacific Exploratory Mission (PEM-West A)
Journal of Geophysical Research 1996, 101, 1763-1778,

F. Sherwood Rowland
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion by Chlorofluorocarbons (Nobel Lecture)
Angewandte Chemie 1996, 35, 1786-1798,

D. R. Blake and F. S. Rowland,
Urban Leakage of Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Its Impact on Air Quality in Mexico City
Science 269, 953 (1995).

C. Y.-L. Wang, D. R. Blake and F. S. Rowland,
Seasonal Variations in the Atmospheric Distribution in Remote Surface Locations of a Reactive Chlorine Compound, Tetrachloroethylene
Geophysical Research Letters 22, 1097 (1995).

D. R. Blake, T. W. Smith, Jr., T.-Y. Chen, W. J. Whipple and F. S. Rowland,
Effects of Biomass Burning on Summertime Nonmethane Hydrocarbon Concentrations in the Canadian Wetlands
Journal of Geophysical Research 99, 1699 (1994).

M. P. McGrath and F. S. Rowland,
Ideal Gas Thermodynamic Properties of HOBr
Journal of Physical Chemistry 98, 4773 (1994).

D. R.Blake, D. F. Hurst, T. W. Smith, Jr., W. J. Whipple, T.-Y. Chen, N. J. Blake and F. S. Rowland,
Summertime Measurements of Selected Nonmethane Hydrocarbons in the Arctic and SubArctic during the 1988 Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE-3A)
Journal of Geophysical Research 97, 16 (1992).

F. S. Rowland,
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
Annual Reviews of Physical Chemistry, 42, 731 (1991).



  • News Articles etc.
  • Activities
  • Lectures
  • Photographs
  • Nobel Prize 1995

Articles (pdf-files) from newspapers and magazines on atmospheric problems, incl. stratospheric ozone depletion

environ1 x
Steve Thomas,
"A modern Galileo", Orange County Metro, May 18, 2000
Gary Robbins,
"Air of Nobility", Orange County Register, Aug. 1, 1999

Marla Cone,
"Environmental Science", Los Angeles Times, July 25, 1999
Robert Hotz,
"Southern California's All-Star", LA Times, July 25, 1999
Arthur Fisher,
"Attack on Ozone Science", Popular Science, October, 1997
William Burton,
"Clea-Up Hitter",
University of Chicago Magazine, August 1997
Edward Humes,
"The Man Who Saved the world", Orange Coast Magazine, February 1996
Eugene Linden,
"Who Lost the Ozone", TIME, May 10, 1993
Stan Young,
"Northern Exposure", People Magazine, February 17, 1992
Edward Edelson,
"The Man Who knew Too Much", Popular Science, Jan., 1989
Michael D. Lemonick, "The Heat Is On", TIME, Oct. 19, 1987
Paul Brodeur,
"Annals of Chemistry: In the Face of Doubt", New Yorker, June 9, 1986
Shari Roan,
"Ozone", Santa Ana Register, August 27, 1986
S. J. Diamond,
"Why ban aerosol sprays?", People Magazine, October 18, 1976
Paul Brodeur,
"Inert", New Yorker, April 7, 1975
Willie T. Smith III,
" Chemist mixed sports, studies", USA Today,
Mmarch 21, 2000
Diane Pucin,
"Rowland Has Seen It All, From Curveballs to CFCs", Los Angeles Times, April 30, 2000
Frederic Golden, "A century of heroes", Time Magazine, Earth Day 2000, Spring 2000
Beyond Discovery: "The Ozone Depletion Phenomenon", National Academy of Sciences, 1996
Michael D. Lemonick, "Of Ozone and Fruit Files", Time Magazine, Oct 23, 1995
Robert Boyle,"Forecast for Disaster", Sports Illustrated, Nov. 16, 1987
Michael Lemonick, "The Ozone Vanishes", Time Magazine, February 17, 1992
"Hot Paper from Atmospheric Chemistry", The Scientist 9[22]:, Nov. 13, 1995  

Excerpts from books:

  • Lydia Dotto and Harold Schiff, "The Ozone War", Doubleday, 1978
    • Prologue & Chapter 1: "The Spray Can War Begins" [pdf-link]
    • Chapter 6, "Shuttle Diplomacy" [pdf-link]

  • Sharon L. Roan, "Ozone Crisis", Wiley, 1989
  • David E. Fisher, "Fire & Ice--The Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Depletion & Nuclear Winter", Hamper and Row, 1990
  • John J. Nance, "What Goes Up", Morrow, 1991
  • Seth Cagin and Philip Dray, "Between Earth and Sky", Pantheon, 1993


Chairman, Committee on International Affairs, National Academy of Sciences, 1994-present

Co-Chair, Interacademy Panel on International Issues, 1995-present

Member, Executive Committee for the Tyler Prize, 1992-

Member, German-American Academic Council, 1994-

Member, Ozone Commission, International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IAMAP), 1980-1988, Honorary Member, 1996-

Member, American Chemical Society, 1953-

Member, American Physical Society, 1960-

Member, American Geophysical Union, 1974-

Member, Nominating Committee, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1998-1999

Member, General Committee, International Council of Scientific Unions, 1993- 1998

Chairman, Committee on International Organizations and Programs, National Academy of Sciences, 1993-1994

Member, Board of Directors, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1991-94

Member, Advisory Group, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1991-1996

Member, Executive Committee, National Institute for Global Environmental Change and Co-Director, Western Region, 1990-1993

Member, California Council on Science and Technology, 1989-1997

Member, University of California Committee on Global Change, 1989-1995

Member, Fachbeirat (Visiting Scientific Committee), Max Planck Institute for Chemistry (Mainz, West Germany), 1989-1996

Member, Committee on Opportunities in Applied Environmental Research and Development, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, 1988-1991

Member, U.S. National Academy of Sciences Film Committee for THE INFINITE VOYAGE, 1988-1992

Chairman, Gordon Conference, Environmental Sciences-Air, 1987

Co-Chairman, Dahlem (West Berlin) Conference on "Our Changing Atmosphere", November 1987

Member, Committee on Atmospheric Chemistry, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, 1987-1989

Member, Board of Environmental Studies and Toxicology, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, 1986-1991

Member, Ozone Trends Panel, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1986-1988; Chairman, Sub-Panel on Total Ozone

Member, U.S. National Committee for SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment), 1986-1989

Alternate Councilor, Division of Physical Chemistry, American Chemical Society, 1985-1988

Chair, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Review Panel for CITE Experiments, 1984

Member, Fachbeirat (Visiting Scientific Committee), Max Planck Institutes for Nuclear Physics (Heidelberg)and Chemistry (Mainz), 1982-1989

Member, Acid Rain Peer Review Panel, U.S. Office of Science and Technology, Executive Office of the White House, 1982-1984

Visiting Scientist, Technical Univ,, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981

Member, Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (CACGP), International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IAMAP), 1979-1991

Member, Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, 1979-1983

Chairman, Scientific Advisory Committee, High Altitude Pollution Program, Federal Aviation Administration, 1978-1982

Member, CODATA Committee, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, 1977-1982; Chairman, 1981-1982

Member, Visiting Committee, Radiochemistry Division (Fission Product Separation from Nuclear Fuels), National Laboratory, Arco, Idaho, 1976-1978

Member, Visiting Committee, Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1974-1978; Chairman, 1976

Chairman, Division of Physical Chemistry, American Chemical Society, 1974-1975

Consultant in Radiation Chemistry, International Atomic Energy Commission(IAEA), Vienna, Austria, 1974

Chairman-elect, Division of Physical Chemistry, American Chemical Society, 1973-1974

Chairman, Division of Nuclear Science and Technology, American Chemical Society, 1973-1974

Chairman-elect, Division of Nuclear Science and Technology, American Chemical Society, 1972-1973

Member, Visiting Committee, Chemistry Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1972-1976

Chairman, Gordon Conference, Isotopes in Chemistry, 1972

Consultant in Radiation Chemistry, International Atomic Energy Commission (IAEA), 1969

Founding Chairman, Chemistry Department, Univ. California Irvine,1964-1970

Visiting Scientist, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany, 1962

Consultant, Radiochemistry Division, General Atomics, San Diego, California, Summer 1960

Visiting Scientist, Radiation Laboratory, University of California-Berkeley, Summer 1957

Visiting Scientist, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Summers 1953, 1954, 1955 and 1959

Some Recent Lectures:





1/19 UNESCO/PEN Conference, Mexico City


1/19 Environmental Science, Oregon State U., Corvallis, Oregon

2/15 Presidential Lecture, Iowa State U., Ames, Iowa

3/3 BirZeit University, Palestine

3/19 APS Centennial Lecture, Univ. Georgia, Athens, Georgia

3/23 APS Centennial Symposium, Atlanta, Georgia

3/28 Plenary Lecture, Chemical Society Japan, Yokohama, Japan

4/15 Gooch-Stephens Lectures, Baylor U., Waco, Texas

4/21-22 Iscol Lectures, Cornell U., Ithaca, New York

5/17-19 Pauling Lectures, Oregon State U., Corvallis, Oregon

5/27 National Religious Partnership, Washington, D.C.

8/12 Directors Lecture, Los Alamos Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

8/18 Special Lecture, Chinese Academy Sciences, Beijing, China

9/1 Lectures, ASTAIRE (AtmosChem), Bergen, Norway

9/3 Physics Department, Univ. Oslo, Oslo, Norway

10/14 National Lecture Series, Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, Ohio

11/28 Opening Lecture, 4th Chulabhorn Science Cong., Bangkok, Thailand


1/21 INSA, Bangalore, India

2/16 Grandpierre Lecture (Chemistry), Columbia U., New York

3/6 Saddleback College, Mission Viejo, Calif.

3/13-16 Lecture Series, Univ. Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii

3/24-25 Spinks Lectures, Univ. Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada

4/1 A.P.Wolf Symposium, Nuclear Div. ACS, Dallas, Texas

4/21 Environmental Horizons Lecture, U. Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

4/23 Leonard Lecture (Chemistry), U. Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

5/13 Environmental Symposium, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, Georgia

6/7 Miller Institute (U.Cal.Berkeley) Symposium, Point Reyes, CA

6/13-14 Lectures to ACS Intl Chemistry Olympiad, Colorado Springs, Colorado

6/28 Nobel Chemistry Symposium, Lindau, Germany

7/17 American Film Institute, Los Angeles, California

8/23 American Chemical Society, Boston, Massachusetts

8/27 European Chemical Society Symposium, Copenhagen, Denmark

9/14 Grand Lecture, 22nd Intl Symp Chromatography, Rome, Italy

9/19 100th Anniv. Radium Symposium, Warsaw, Poland

9/21 Honorary Degree Lecture, Urbino, Italy

9/27 10th Anniv. Symp., Caribbean Acad. Sci., Trinidad

10/15 Chemistry (Univ. Michigan), Ann Arbor, Michigan

10/26 Science Futures Series, U. Calif, San Diego, LaJolla, Calif.

12/1 Energy & Environment Symposium, Accademia Lincei, Rome, Italy


1/22 Academy of Science, Taipei, Taiwan

1/24 Korean Academy of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea

2/10 Warren Lecture (Chemistry) Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, Tenn.

3/5 JapanSocPromotionScience Symposium, Washington, D.C.

3/17 Nevada Medal Lecture, Univ. Nevada, Reno, Nevada

3/19 Nevada Medal Lecture, Univ. Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada

5/2 Chemistry Department, Univ. Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

5/9 Physics Department, Calif. State Univ. Los Angeles, Calif.

5/16 Asian Science Conf., Hiroshima, Japan

5/19 Honorary Degree Lecture, Kanagawa University, Yokohama, Japan

5/21 Chemical Society Japan, Tokyo, Japan

6/5 Chemistry Department, University of Chicago

6/6 Perlman Lecture, (Social Services Administration) University of Chicago

6/17 Gordon Conference Atmospheric Chemistry, Newport, Rhode Island

6/24 World Bank Conference, Toronto, Canada

7/1 Plenary Lecture, Intl.Geophysical Union, Melbourne, Australia

7/24 White House Roundtable on Climate Change, Washington, DC

9/4 Plenary Lecture, Royal Society Chemistry, Aberdeen, Scotland

9/9 Third World Academy Symposium, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

9/11 Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

9/29 Polanyi Symposium, Univ. Toronto, Canada

10/7 Nobel Symposium, Gustavus Adolphus, St. Peter, Minnesota

11/5 Health Symposium, Johns Hopkins U., Baltimore, MD

11/6 Santa Fe Institute Workshop, Santa Fe, NM

11/17 Forum, Intl Geoscience, Natl Research Council, Washington, DC

12/1 Atmospheric Chemistry Division, NatlCenAtmos Res, Boulder, Colorado


1/4 World Resources Institute, Washington, DC

1/11 Sigma Xi, University of California, Irvine

2/2 AAAS Ozone Symposium, Baltimore

2/14 Robbins Lecturer (Chemistry), Pomona College (Calif)

3/15 American Chemical Society (Chicago Section)

3/22 University of Potchestroom, South Africa

3/26 Royal Society, Capetown, South Africa

4/11 Smith Lecturer (Physics), Ohio State

4/17 UNOCAL Lecturer, California State University Long Beach

4/24 ACS National Lecture (TV)

5/30 Boazici University, Istanbul, Turkey

6/1 Interacademy Panel Forum, Istanbul, Turkey

6/5 Habitat II (U.N.), Istanbul, Turkey

6/20 Photochemical Symposium, Minneapolis

6/27 American Academy of Achievement, Sun Valley (Idaho)

7/22 CSIRO Melbourne, Australia

7/23 Monash University Australia

7/25 Western Geophysical Union, Brisbane, Australia

7/29 Global Change Symposium, California Institute of Technology

9/12 Plenary Lecture, Quedrennial Ozone Symposium L'Aquila (Italy)

9/30 Chemistry Department UNAM, Mexico City

10/1 Chemistry Department, National University of Mexico (UNAM) Mexico City

10/5 Nobel Symposium, University of California, Irvine

10/21 Edison Lecture, University of California, San Diego

11/2 250th Anniversary Symposium, Princeton University

11/8 Physics Department, University of California, Irvine

11/18 Environmental Symposium, University of Southern California

12/2 Inst. Atmospheric Physics, Kiruna, Sweden

12/3 Chemistry Department Umea University, Umea, Sweden

12/7 Ten Nobels Symposium, Milan, Italy

12/12 Meteorological Institute, Stockholm University

Selected prior to 1996

Monsanto Lecturer, Purdue University, 1995

J.E. Willard Lecturer, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1994

Arthur Compton Lecturer, Washington University, 1994

Clark Lecture, San Jose State University, 1994

AUI Lecturer, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1994

Distinguished Graduate Research Lecturer, San Diego State University, 1994

Clapp Lecture, Brown University, 1993

Sunner Lecture, Lund University (Sweden), 1993

Robertson Memorial Lecture, National Academy of Sciences, 1993

Gucker Lecture, University of Indiana, 1993

Blacet Lectures, University of California Los Angeles, 1993

Smith Lecturer, Davidson College (North Carolina), 1992

Zucker Fellow, Yale University, 1991

All-Conference Plenary Lecture, Royal Society of Chemistry, York University (UK), 1991

Distinguished Speakers Forum, Air Products, Inc., Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1991

King Lecturer, Kansas State University, 1991

Montgomery Fellow, Dartmouth College, 1990

Steven Manley Memorial Lecture, University of California Santa Barbara, 1990

Craig Hollowell Lecturer, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1990

Discovery Lecture, The Infinite Voyage, Public Broadcasting System and National Academy of Sciences, 1989

E. T. York Lecturer, Auburn University, 1989

DuPont Lecturer in Chemistry, Bates College, 1989

Hutchison Lecturer in Chemistry, University of Rochester, 1989

Eickmayer Lecturer, University of Missouri, Kansas City, 1989

General Research Colloquium, AT&T Bell Laboratories, 1988

Gustavson Lecturer in Chemistry, University of Chicago, 1988

Condon Lecturer in Geophysics, Oregon State University, 1987

Carolina Environmental Lecturer, University of North Carolina, 1987

Whitehead Lecturer in Chemistry, University of Georgia, 1986

Our Changing Atmosphere Lecture Series, University of Rhode Island, 1986

Visiting Lecturer, Academica Sinica, Institute of Chemistry, Beijing, China, 1980

Snider Lecturer, University of Toronto, 1980

Venable Lecturer, University of North Carolina, 1979

Erskine Fellow, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, 1978

Frontiers of Science Lecturer, University of Utah, 1977

Sigma Xi National Lecturer, 1977

J. T. Donald Lecturer, McGill University, 1976

Frontiers of Science Lecturer, University of Florida, 1975

Philips Lecturer, Haverford College, 1975

Sidore Lecturer, University of New Hampshire, 1975

McGregor Lecturer, Colgate University, 1975

The Nobel Prize 1995

Press release for 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry [link].

Nobel Autobiography [link].

Nobel Lecture Nobel Lecture, December 8, 1995 [pdf-link].

Nobel Banquet Speech, December 10, 1995 [link].

The Nobels in Time Magazine [pdf-link].

Scientist Honored for Role in Landmark Discovery of CFC Damage to Ozone Layer
AGU, Earth in Space Vol. 8, No. 8, April 1996, pp. 7-8. [link]

Pioneers in Ozone Research Receive Nobel Prizes in Chemistry
AGU, Eos Vol. 76, No. 42, October 17, 1995, pp. 417-418 [link]

Interview with Professor F. Sherwood Rowland by freelance journalist Marika Griehsel at the 55th meeting of Nobel Laureates in Lindau, Germany, June 2005 (Video) [link].

The Nobel Foundation [link].